Ranchers and beef farmers raising cattle for meat production must time their butchering properly to make the most profit.
If you are new to beef animals and the beef industry, you likely are wondering what age to butcher a cow.
Slaughtering age typically ranges from 30-42 months. This varies based on the quality grade of meat and the desired product. Allowing cattle to fatten up will increase marbling in the meat. Cutter and utility meat tend to be slaughtered earlier while finer meats like prime or choice beef.
There are a few variables to consider when butchering a cow for beef production, including age.
Let’s consider how to decide what age beef producers should butcher a cow.
What Is The Ideal Age To Butcher A Cow?
The ideal age to butcher a cow is between 30 and 42 months.
These are the highest grades possible and produce the most flavorful beef.
This age is ideal because it allows a delicious covering of fat to form and create the marbling responsible for the most sought-after taste and tenderness.
While this may be the ideal age for flavor and texture, the ideal age also depends on what you intend to use the beef for.
If you have dairy beef from mature cows, you will likely want to wait until the dairy cows are no longer efficiently producing good quantities or qualities of milk.
This way, you get the most from the cows during their milk production years while also finishing their beef as mature cows.
Related Reading: How long cow meat needs to hang after butchering
What Happens If You Butcher A Cow When It Is Too Young?
If you butcher calves for beef while they are very young, it does not necessarily mean it will be of poor quality.
Many beef breeds have fast calf growth rates, which means you’ll get a good bit of meat even if they are quite young.
Some grades of beef have slaughter age requirements, and a baby calf may not meet these requirements.
However, select, utility, cutter, and canner grades are potential options for calves of beef breeds slaughtered at a young age.
What Happens If You Butcher A Cow When It Is Too Old?
For mature bulls, steers, and heifers, you may wonder if it is too late to slaughter them.
This is not the case.
While the meat’s marbling, tenderness, and overall quality may not be ideal, they still produce a good amount of meat.
This meat falls under quite a few categories, although they are lower grades.
A low carcass quality grade does not mean it is inedible.
It means it will not be the most flavorful beef and a bit tougher than higher-quality beef.
What Are The Quality Grades Of Meat?
Part of deciding what age to butcher a cow depends on what quality grade you desire for your market beef.
As cattle age, the degree of fatness changes.
This is partially due to daily weight gains when they switch from mother’s milk to grain diets as they stop nursing.
The degree of fatness, bone density, and muscle fibers affect the quality grade.
This is why when you go to a butcher shop or grocery store.
Mature cattle tend to have more muscle mass compared to lighter-weight in younger cattle.
Related Reading: Cost of butchering cattle guide
The slaughter age for flavorful beef in the prime grade comes from mature cattle aged 30 to 42 months.
Fat covers their crops, back, ribs, loin, and rump at this age.
The fat thickness at this age gives it the wonderful beefy flavor responsible for making prime such a popular choice for beef lovers.
The age of beef cattle falling under the choice grade is also 30 to 42 months.
There is a moderately thick covering of fat at this age.
The differences in fatness between prime and choice are what determine its grade.
Body fat reserves and overall cattle fatness result in the marbling of the beef carcass.
This gives it a desirable texture and delectable beef flavor.
Select beef has a maximum slaughter age of 30 months. This results in leaner beef with minimal fat covering.
The backfat thickness, as well as overall fat covering, is very minimal in this quality grade.
The slaughter age for standard grade beef is 30 to 42 months.
While this is the same age as prime and choice, the main difference is fat thickness.
Standard grade has a very slight covering of fat.
The differences in fatness between standard and other grades are partially due to the traits of specific beef cattle breeds and whether it is grass-fed or grain-fed beef.
Commercial grade beef has a slaughter age of over 42 months.
This type of beef comes from mature bulls and heifers.
The degree of fatness is moderately thick, and the muscles are moderately firm.
Beef from cattle reared at this age tends to be less expensive than prime, choice, or select grades.
Utility grade beef varies significantly in age.
Mostly it consists of a mature body condition in beef cows.
As they age, the carcass specs indicate no fat marbling.
The stiffness of muscles in the carcass increases leading to beef from cattle finished with a low degree of fatness and lower quality taste and tenderness.
There is a limited range of cutability among cattle finished in this grade.
Cutter grade beef also varies significantly in age.
The degree of fatness in this grade is very low.
Its slight fat covering lends to low-quality meat usually used in ground beef, hot dogs, and even dog food.
The differences in fatness make a difference when it comes to whether or not you’ll get flavorful beef.
This level of the cattle scale has a low range of cutability among cattle grades.
Cattle with frame scores ranking in the canner grade do not meet the requirements of utility grade.
This is usually used in meat products requiring processing.
The slaughter age for this grade varies from under 30 months to mature bulls, steers, and heifers.
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